Bitcoin Price Prediction Time-Series

Project Planning

Project planning forms the cornerstone of any data science project, guiding the systematic approach through each phase of the project lifecycle.

Project Objectives

Using time-series forecasting, this project aims to predict the average price of Bitcoin with a model that outperforms the baseline prediction. By doing so, it hopes to provide insights into future Bitcoin price trends and potential investment opportunities.

Business Goals

From a business perspective, the main goals are:

  • To harness historical Bitcoin data and provide actionable insights for potential investors.
  • To fine-tune the model's hyperparameters for optimal predictive power, ensuring stakeholders make the most informed decisions.
  • Enable quicker response to market changes by offering up-to-date predictions.


This project targets a wide array of audiences, from cryptocurrency enthusiasts to seasoned investors, financial analysts, and even newcomers to the crypto market who want to understand Bitcoin's potential price trajectory.


Upon completion, this project will deliver:

  • A trained machine learning model with documentation on its performance metrics against the baseline.
  • A comprehensive report detailing the data acquisition, preprocessing, exploratory data analysis, modeling, and evaluation stages.
  • Visualizations showcasing Bitcoin price trends, feature importances, and model predictions.
  • A user-friendly interface or dashboard (if applicable) for stakeholders to access and interpret the model's predictions.

Executive Summary

The exponential growth and volatility of cryptocurrencies, especially Bitcoin, has garnered significant attention from investors, regulators, and the general public. This project aims to leverage the power of data science to understand and predict Bitcoin's price movement.


Bitcoin, the pioneering cryptocurrency, has experienced significant fluctuations over the years. These fluctuations are influenced by various factors ranging from governmental regulations, market adoption, technological advancements, to macroeconomic factors. This project seeks to harness this data to make informed predictions about future price movements.


Using time-series analysis, historical data of Bitcoin prices were collected, cleaned, and analyzed. Various models, including Last Observed Value, Holt's Linear Trend, and others, were trained to predict future prices. Model performance was evaluated against a baseline prediction using metrics such as Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD).


Initial findings indicate that while the Last Observed Value offers quick predictions, more sophisticated models like Holt's Linear Trend provide improved accuracy. Visualizations such as pairplots and correlation matrices were crucial in understanding feature relationships and their impact on price prediction.

Conclusions & Recommendations

The power of predictive modeling shines through in its ability to guide potential Bitcoin investment strategies. Stakeholders are recommended to employ the model's predictions in tandem with broader market insights. It's also advised to continually refine and retrain the model as new data becomes available, ensuring its predictions remain accurate and relevant.

Next Steps

Moving forward, the project aims to incorporate more external factors that influence Bitcoin's price, such as macroeconomic indicators and global events. There's also a plan to explore deep learning techniques, potentially improving prediction accuracy further.

Acquire Data

In this phase, the primary focus was on sourcing, understanding, and validating the dataset used for predicting Bitcoin prices. Proper acquisition is pivotal to the success of any data science endeavor.

Data Source

The dataset was procured from Kaggle, which provides a comprehensive daily historical record of Bitcoin prices, trading volumes, and other pertinent metrics since Bitcoin's inception. The dataset covers a timeframe from January 2010 to December 2022.

Data Structure

The dataset is structured as a time-series with a daily frequency. Each entry contains the date, opening price, highest price, lowest price, closing price, and trading volume for that specific day. Additionally, data regarding market sentiment indicators and other external factors were also included to enrich the dataset.

Data Dictionary

The following table defines the key columns in the dataset:

Feature Datatype Definition
Timestamp 4857377 non-null: datetime64[ns] start time of time window (60s window), in Unix Time
Open 3613769 non-null: float64 Open price at start time window
High 3613769 non-null: float64 High price within the time window
Low 3613769 non-null: float64 Low price within the time window
Close 3613769 non-null: float64 Close price at the end of the time window
Volume_(BTC) 3613769 non-null: float64 Volume of BTC transacted in this window
Volume_(Currency) 3613769 non-null: float64 Volume of corresponding currency transacted in this window
Weighted_Price 3613769 non-null: float64 VWAP - Volume Weighted Average Price

Data Tail

The following is a snapshot of the last few rows of the dataset:

Timestamp Open High Low Close Volume_(BTC) Volume_(Currency) Weighted_Price
2021-03-30 23:56:00 58714.3 58714.3 58686 58686 1.38449 81259.4 58692.8
2021-03-30 23:57:00 58684 58693.4 58684 58685.8 7.29485 428158 58693.2
2021-03-30 23:58:00 58693.4 58723.8 58693.4 58723.8 1.70568 100117 58696.2
2021-03-30 23:59:00 58742.2 58770.4 58742.2 58760.6 0.720415 42333 58761.9
2021-03-31 00:00:00 58767.8 58778.2 58756 58778.2 2.71283 159418 58764.3

Initial Observations

Upon a cursory examination, the dataset demonstrated the volatile nature of Bitcoin prices. Some patterns, such as periodic spikes in trading volume or price fluctuations around significant global events, began to emerge. These patterns provided the first hints at potential features and methodologies to explore in subsequent stages.

Acquire Takeaways

Data acquisition went smoothly, with no missing values or evident inconsistencies. However, given Bitcoin's decentralized nature, data from a single source might have limitations. It's recommended to consider multiple sources or cross-reference data in future iterations for enhanced reliability.

Prepare Data

During the data preparation phase, a methodical approach was taken to transform the raw dataset into a refined version, ready for exploratory analysis and modeling. This involved handling anomalies, ensuring data integrity, and creating additional features that would aid in predicting Bitcoin prices more effectively.

Data Cleaning

It's essential to start with a clean dataset to maintain the accuracy of predictions. Steps in this process included:

  • Handling Missing Values: Instances with missing values were identified. Given the time-series nature, linear interpolation was used to fill gaps where appropriate.
  • Outlier Detection: Statistical methods, such as IQR and Z-score, were employed to spot and handle extreme values that could skew the analysis.

Feature Engineering

Additional features were derived from the existing dataset to capture potential patterns and relationships. Some of the newly engineered features include:

  • Moving Averages: Short-term and long-term moving averages were computed to capture trends.
  • Volatility Index: An index capturing the fluctuation in prices over a defined period.

Data Splitting

To ensure unbiased evaluation, the dataset was split into training, validation, and test sets. This allows for iterative model refinement using the training and validation sets, followed by a final evaluation on the test set.

Prepare Takeaways

Post data preparation, the dataset was not only cleaner but also richer with additional features, enhancing its potential predictive power. It's imperative to continually refine the preparation steps in subsequent project iterations, given the dynamic nature of Bitcoin prices and the continual influx of new data.

Data Exploration

Data exploration is a critical phase that involves understanding the underlying patterns, relationships, and structures in the dataset. Through a blend of visual and statistical methods, a comprehensive understanding of the Bitcoin prices dataset was achieved.

Statistical Analysis

Utilizing descriptive statistics, key characteristics of the data distribution were understood:

  • Central Tendency: Measures such as mean, median, and mode provided insights into the central values of the dataset.
  • Dispersion: Standard deviation, variance, and range highlighted the spread and variability within the data.

Visual Analysis

Graphical representations aided in visually understanding the data dynamics:

  • Time-Series Plot: Tracking Bitcoin prices over time helped understand trends and seasonality.
  • Histograms & Density Plots: Evaluated the data distribution and identified potential skews.


Understanding how variables interact and relate to one another is crucial. Correlation matrices and scatter plots provided insights into potential linear relationships between variables.


Pairwise relationships across the entire dataset were visualized using pairplots. This allowed for a quick snapshot of potential relationships and distributions.

Explore Takeaways

Through rigorous exploration, insights into the nuances of the Bitcoin price movement were gleaned. Recognizing patterns, potential outliers, and understanding variable relationships sets the stage for more informed feature selection and model development in subsequent phases.


The modeling phase aimed to forecast Bitcoin prices by deploying various time-series forecasting methods. By comparing the performance metrics across models, the most accurate and efficient model was selected.

Baseline Model

Before diving into complex models, a simple baseline prediction was established to provide a reference point. The mean or the last observed value can often be used as a straightforward baseline.

Last Observed Value

This approach, commonly known as the naive forecast, involves predicting the next data point based on the last observed value. It serves as a foundational model to benchmark other sophisticated models against.

Rolling & Moving Average

The rolling and moving average method involves calculating the average of the data points within a specified window of time. This smoothing technique helps in identifying underlying trends by dampening short-term fluctuations and anomalies.

Holt's Linear Trend

Holt's linear exponential smoothing captures the data's level and trend. This double-exponential smoothing technique is suitable for data with a linear trend and no seasonality.

Previous Cycle

For datasets with cyclic patterns, leveraging data from the previous cycle can yield insightful predictions. This method assumes that patterns repeat after a certain period.

Model Evaluation

Each model's performance was gauged using metrics such as Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Squared Error (MSE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). By juxtaposing these metrics across models, the most optimal model was identified for forecasting Bitcoin prices.


The culmination of the project's rigorous data science processes, the delivery phase serves to communicate key findings, actionable insights, and the strategic value derived from the Bitcoin price prediction model.

Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD)

RMSD provides a measure of the differences between the predicted values and the observed values. Lower RMSD values indicate a better fit of the model to the data, whereas higher values suggest potential model inadequacies or outliers in the data.

Conclusions & Next Steps

The conclusions outline the project's key insights, implications, and the potential impacts of the model on strategic decision-making. Additionally, future recommendations can encompass refining the model, exploring other prediction algorithms, or expanding the scope of data.


To ensure the study's validity and applicability, the entire process—from data acquisition to modeling—has been meticulously documented. This enables easy replication and fosters continuous improvement by adapting to new datasets or integrating advanced algorithms in the future.

Presentation & Visualization

Key findings and insights were effectively communicated through comprehensive visualizations and interactive dashboards, enhancing stakeholders' understanding and facilitating informed decision-making.

Stakeholder Feedback

Engaging with stakeholders and collecting feedback is vital for refining the model's utility and relevance. Their perspectives and queries can offer deeper insights, guiding the model's future iterations and ensuring alignment with business objectives.